There is a lot of different fuel you can make and use, but the fact that you are here reveals your interest in ethanol as a fuel.In the world today, petroleum, solar, and biodiesel are the common fuels people use today. Others may be considering ethanol because of its benefit to replace other fuel in cars, generators, tractor, or to power farm equipment or homes. The majority of people who listen to this book to the end will likely have learned a lot about ethanol, such as the history of ethanol, how to produce ethanol at home, uses of ethanol, application of ethanol, and so on.Ethanol has a long history, certainly as a beverage but also as a fuel which only comes to use in the 19th century for lighting. The path of ethanol from a light source to fuel, an additive for pure air testing and bridging technology enable us to move into an oil-free era which is exciting. The story is full of political issues, the effects of wars, industrial espionage, and the pure energy of a popular movement. The most important story, however, is the fact that a full litany of common carbohydrates, not just food crops, but also agricultural slaughter, food waste, and plants that are normally bothersome, can actually become a viable fuel that is effectively distributed or produced. According to the approach adopted for the production of ethanol, it is entirely possible to maintain a fully autonomous, self-sustaining, and environmentally responsible operation that produces not only fuel but also valuable by-products that can be sold, replaced, or recycled. In this way, ethanol has real advantages over other renewable fuels because it does not need many processes. Releasing unpredictable changes in traditional commodity markets can be a real advantage in long-term planning, insurance, and peace of mind. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Meagan Lynne. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/164802/bk_acx0_164802_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
Egusi-melon features prominently in the farming systems of Southeastern Nigeria while turmeric is a new crop in the region. Egusi is cultivated as intercrop for its oil seed which is rich in protein, oil, essential amino-acids and minerals. In the cropping system, egusi is always introduced as live mulch to control weeds as it provides early vegetative cover which naturally suppresses weed growth during the initial growth of the component crops. Farmers practice intercropping for the production of higher total yields from a unit land area, insurance against crop failure, reduction in the levels of insect pests, diseases and weeds and better use of resources among others. Turmeric is useful as a spice, cosmetic, coloring agent and for its numerous natural medicinal properties, food value and capacity as foreign exchange earner capable of alleviating poverty due to its employment potential. In spite of the production and utilization potentials of both crops, there is a dearth of information on intercropping involving turmeric in Nigeria. This book will be beneficial to all farmers, agricultural research Institutes, students as well as entrepreneurs involved in turmeric.
The main objectives of this study were to investigate farmers' perceptions about the relative importance of various types,sources of risks and risk management strategies (RMS) and factors that influence their perceptions. Farmers perceived production and institutional risks as important types of risks. Rainfall fluctuation, drought, soil fertility decline and weeds were perceived as important sources of production risks. On the other hand, land scarcity, higher prices of improved seeds, breeds, feeds and fertilizers, lower prices of crops at sale were perceived as important sources of institutional and market risks. The farmers perceived agricultural extension services, diversification of crops and income sources, use of improved technologies, future and contract marketing and crop insurance as important RMS. Hence, this research is expected to contribute to the efforts of GOs, NGOs, farmers and academia in their efforts in the designing and adoption of appropriate RMS in agriculture. Moreover, the findings of the study will serve as a baseline for further research on smallholder farmers' perceptions of risk RMS in the study area.
Agricultural risk management and crop insurance has been used by a number countries as a mechanism to reduce farm income instability by reducing yield risks.This book provides an in-depth analysis and evaluation of government provided crop insurance in some of countries. The book is organized into five chapters: chapter one presents introduction and important of agricultural crop insurance programs in India and selected other countries. chapter two discussed about problems of farming in India. chapter three is profile of Jam and Kashmir State of India,chapter 4 discussed about climate change and natural disasters.chapter five proved some suggestions.The main chapters of the book are chapters one,three,and five where the results of a series of empirical studies using databases particularly designed to answer crop insurance questions are presented. This part of the book tests a number of the hypotheses which were raised in Parts one and two regarding reasons for the view widely held by farmers and agricultural economists that agricultural crop insurance has not functioned well in J&K State.The golden point of this books is an introduce of chaos theory in agricultural crop insurance.
Among intercropping practices mixed cropping deals with growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement. In this book, barley-wheat mixed cropping studies under various moisture deficit stress levels revealed that mixed cropping improves productivity, water use efficiency and stability. Barley matured early and absorbed much of its water at early stages, leaving more space for late maturing wheat in the mixtures. Therefore, mixed cropping of these two crop species helps combine important characters in a cropping system so as to enhance productivity through complementary resource uses in the drylands. Thus mixed cropping of barley and wheat can be an insurance to stabilize productivity and water use efficiency, and minimize crop failure risks in stresses of drought and high temperature spells that are difficult to predict in dryland areas. The results also suggest that variety development is a necessity to cope with high temperature stresses of the lowlands or for such stresses caused by climate change. The book can serve as knowledge input to organic farming, researchers, teachers and agricultural development extension workers.
Mixed/inter/relay cropping is a common practice in the low level equilibrium farmers of semi-arid and arid tropics, whose primary concern is to insulate his investment on labour, and meagre capital against adversities of nature in order to sustain his living. The main consideration of mixing crops together is to reduce the risk of failure. The basic concept of intercropping systems involving growing together two or more crops with the assumptions that two crops could exploit the environment better than one and ultimately producing higher yields, the reason being that the component crops differ in resources use and if growing together they complement each other, and make better overall use of resources. The grower, thus, has what might be called "biological insurance". Pearl millet is the main kharif (monsoon) crop grown under rainfed conditions. Intercropping is common practice in pearl millet in rainfed conditions. Hence, it is worthwhile to find out best combination of pearl millet intercropped with short duration grain legumes like green gram and black gram. Weed problem is one of the major barriers responsible for low productivity of pearl millet.
The research presented in this book explores the reasons for the low productivity of rain-fed agriculture and risky nature of agriculture of Pothwar region with focus on the determinants of overall farm income and major crops yield. The results show that operational land holding is inversely proportional to per acre farm income. The area irrigated, off-farm income, the number of livestock, cost incurred on livestock, hired labor, and tractor ownership show signi cant positive effects on farm income. Irrigated area and respective prices of crops has positive affect on yield of major crops of area.The seven important factors for agricultural risk sources include imperfect market risks, catastrophe, lack of information risks, weather and lack of insurance risks, price risks, drought and disease risks, and nancial risks. Thsix factors sorted for risk management strategies include planning and policy, infrastructure development, research and information management, diversi cation and off-farm employment generation, nancial management security, and input management. The farm households are categorized into three distinct groups on the basis of risk factors' cluster analysis according to their risk attitudes towards different risk sources. These three groups of farmers are named as risk averse (49.5 % farmers), risk neutral (31.0 % farmers) and risk seekers (19.5 % farmers).
Agricultural Statistics is published each year to meet the diverse need for a reliable reference book on agricultural production, supplies, consumption, facilities, costs, and returns. Its tables of annual data cover a wide variety of facts in forms suited to most common use. The estimates for crops, livestock, and poultry made by the U.S. Department of Agriculture are prepared mainly to give timely current state and national totals and averages. They are based on data obtained by sample surveys of farmers and of people who do business with farmers. The survey data are supplemented by information from the Census of Agriculture taken every five years. Being estimates, they are subject to revision as more data become available from commercial or government sources. Unless otherwise indicated, the totals for the United States shown in the various tables on area, production, numbers, price, value, supplies, and disposition are based on official Department estimates. They exclude states for which no official estimates are compiled. Extensive data includes statistics for the following: ·Grain and Feed ·Cotton, Tobacco, Sugar Crops, and Honey ·Oilseeds, Fats, and Oils ·Vegetables and Melons ·Hay, Seeds, and Minor Field Crops ·Cattle, Hogs, and Sheep ·Dairy and Poultry ·Insurance, Credit & Cooperatives ·Agricultural Conservation & Forestry ·Consumption & Family Living ·Fertilizers & Pesticides Miscellaneous Agricultural Statistics such as Foreign Agricultural Trade Statistics including exports, fisheries and more. Professionals in the following fields to include farmers, ranchers, soil conservationists, surveyors, agricultural economist consultants, livestock manufacturers, livestock feedlot operators, food distributors, animal scientists, food chemists, food brokers, farm and land appraisers (and more) may have the greatest interest in this volume.