Proposals of the Massachusetts Hospital Life Insurance Company to Make Insurance on Lives to Grant Annuities on Lives and in Trust and Endowments for Children ab 11.99 € als Taschenbuch: . Aus dem Bereich: Bücher, Taschenbücher, Geist & Wissen,
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! This article concerns proposals to change the Social Security system in the United States. Social Security is a social insurance program officially called "Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance" (OASDI), in reference to its three components. It is primarily funded through a dedicated payroll tax. During 2008, total benefits of $625 billion were paid out versus income (taxes and interest) of $805 billion, a $180 billion annual surplus. An estimated 162 million people paid into the program and 51 million received benefits, roughly 3.2 workers per beneficiary. Reform proposals continue to circulate with some urgency, due to a long-term funding challenge faced by the program. Starting in 2016, program expenses begin to exceed revenues. This is due to the aging of the baby-boom generation (resulting in a lower ratio of paying workers to retirees), expected continuing low birth rate (compared to the baby-boom period), and increasing life expectancy. Further, the government has borrowed and spent the accumulated surplus funds, called the Social Security Trust Fund, while counting the funds as revenue, not debt.
In the developing countries like India, fee-for service is still the major type of payment mechanism, where very few people can afford to utilize oral health care services regularly and most of the people will visit dentist only for curative services occasionally not for preventive measures Hence Dentists are often puzzled when patients and the public complain about the high cost of dental care. In response to the barriers faced as a result of not being able to afford the cost of health care, various concepts and mechanisms of financing are born. Therefore it is not surprising to see a continuous stream of proposals and mechanisms being conceptualized to make health care amenable to the public in the form of Insurance.
Recently, political discussion about employment protection has again come to the fore in Europe. The most prominent example certainly is the struggle over the Contrat Première Embauche in France in 2006. Many officials claim that the loosening or reorganisation of the employment protection legislation would decrease unemployment because of more flexible labour markets. This is questioned by the advocates of employment protection. The book evaluates - from a theoretical perspective - the possible employment effects of some proposals made, namely an experience-rated unemployment insurance, severance payments, educational decisions and the interaction of employment protection and unionisation.
How efficient is the Chinese healthcare system? Milcent examines the medication market in China against the global picture of healthcare organization, and how public healthcare insurance plans have been implemented in recent years, as well as reforms to tackle hospital inefficiency. Healthcare reforms, demographic changes and an increase in wealth inequity have altered healthcare preferences, which need to be addressed. Significantly, the patient-medical staff relationship is analysed, with new proposals for different lines of communication. Milcent puts forward digital healthcare in China as a tool to solve inefficiency and rising tensions, and generate profit. Where China is leading in the digitalization of healthcare, other countries can learn important lessons. Chinese social models are also put into context with respect to current reforms and experimentation.
What role should regulation play in financial markets? What have been the ramifications of financial regulation? To answer these and other questions regarding the efficacy of legislation on financial markets, this book examines the impact of the Gramm Leach Bliley Act (GLBA), also called the Financial Modernization Act of 1999, which fundamentally changed the financial landscape in the United States. The GLBA allows the formation of financial holding companies that can offer an integrated set of commercial banking, securities and insurance products. The tenth anniversary of the most sweeping financial legislation reform in the industry’s structure is a natural benchmark for assessing the effects of the law and for questioning whether changes are necessary in the working of this historic legislation. The importance of this review is reinforced by a variety of proposals in the last several years to reform the regulation of financial institutions that have attracted considerable attention among regulators and in the financial firms that they regulate. Most recently, the financial crisis and the failure of some large financial institutions have called into question the legitimacy of America’s current financial structure and its regulation, including to some degree the GLBA. There is no doubt that regulatory reform is front and center on today’s policy agenda. The lessons of the GLBA experience and its effects, both domestic and international, on financial markets and competitiveness, risk-taking and risk management by financial services firms and their regulators will be critical to the direction the country takes and the effort to ensure that future financial crises do not occur or have less costly damage. With contributions from academics, policy experts, and a sponsor of the GLBA, Congressman James Leach, this book is invaluable to anyone interested in financial system reform.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2010 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, printed single-sided, grade: 9.0, Maastricht University, language: English, abstract: This thesis analyzes the voting behavior of the Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association - College Retirement Equities Fund (TIAA-CREF). As one of the largest financial services companies in the United States, with over 426 billion Dollar in combined assets under management as of 31 of March 2010, the fund is using proxy voting as a tool to promote positive returns from their investments. This thesis relies on a database constructed out of SEC N-PX lings over a period of six month. The results indicate that TIAA-CREF only withholds directors their vote in a moderate amount of cases. In addition, the fund voted more often against management at proposals cast by shareholders concerning board structures and shareholder rights than at proposals concerning other corporate governance issues.
Master's Thesis from the year 2011 in the subject Business economics - Banking, Stock Exchanges, Insurance, Accounting, University of Applied Sciences Essen, course: General economics, language: English, abstract: The global financial crisis which began in mid-2007 revealed the significant risks posed by large, complex and interconnected institutions and the fault-lines in the regulatory and oversight systems. The drying up of market liquidity caused lacks of funding for financial institutions and their reactions to the market stress increased the market tensions which highlighted the strong link between banks funding liquidity and market liquidity. Over the past two decades preceding the crisis, banks in advanced countries significantly expanded in size and increased their outreach globally. In many cases, they moved away from the traditional banking model towards globally active large and complex financial institutions. The majority of cross-border finance was intermediated by some of these institutions with growing interconnections within and across borders. The result were trends in the banking industry which include a sharp rise in leverage, significant reliance on short-term funding, significant off-balance sheet activities, maturity mismatches and increased share of revenues from complex products and trading activities. This development has moved on to a systematic risk and it has been identified a need in the financial sector to measure those aspects, to assess the resilience of the financial sector to liquidity shocks and give guidance to the policy of central banks and regulators. At the same time, the financial industry has started a fast process of consolidation worldwide. Regulators, organized in the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) have responded to the financial crisis by proposing new regulation which is known as 'Basel III'. The reform program leads to fundamental changes and implements capital and liquidity reforms. The liquidity reform represents the first attempt by international regulators to introduce harmonized liquidity minimum standards for financial institutions. Extensive efforts through the Basel Committee, with the 'Basel III' program, are being considered internationally and domestically to revise these deficiencies and failures, in order to safeguard the stability of the financial system. The key objective is to promote a less leveraged, less risky, and thus a more resilient financial system that supports strong and sustainable economic growth. The bulk of the proposals have focused on revising existing regulations applicable to financial institutions and to influence the extent and consequences of their risk taking.